Replicative aging has been demonstrated in asymmetrically dividing unicellular organisms, seemingly caused by unequal damage partitioning. Although asymmetric segregation and inheritance of potential aging factors also occurs in symmetrically dividing species, it nevertheless remains controversial whether this results in aging. Based on large-scale single-cell lineage data obtained by time-lapse microscopy with a microfluidic device, in this report, we demonstrate the absence of replicative aging in old-pole cell lineages of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cultured under constant favorable conditions. By monitoring more than 1,500 cell lineages in seven different culture conditions, we showed that both cell division and death rates are remarkably constant for at least 50-80 generations. Our measurements revealed that the death rate per cellular generation increases with division rate, pointing to a physiological trade-off with fast growth under balanced growth conditions. We also observed the formation and inheritance of Hsp104-associated protein aggregates, which are a potential aging factor in old-pole cell lineages, and found that these aggregates exhibited a tendency to preferentially remain at the old-poles for several generations. However, the aggregates were eventually segregated from old-pole cells upon cell division and probabilistically allocated to new-pole cells. The quantity and inheritance of protein aggregates increased neither cellular generation time nor cell death initiation rates. Furthermore, our results revealed that unusually large amounts of protein aggregates induced by oxidative stress exposure did not result in aging; old-pole cells resumed normal growth upon stress removal, despite the fact that most of them inherited significant quantities of aggregates. These results collectively indicate that protein aggregates are not a major determinant of cell fate in S. pombe, and thus cannot be an appropriate molecular marker or index for replicative aging under both favorable and stressful environmental conditions.