Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection and a known cause of microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and cognitive impairment among newborns worldwide. Natural maternal HCMV immunity reduces the incidence of congenital infection, but does not prevent the disease altogether. We employed a nonhuman primate model of congenital CMV infection to investigate the ability of preexisting antibodies to protect against placental CMV transmission. Pregnant, CD4+ T cell-depleted, rhesus CMV (RhCMV)-seronegative rhesus monkeys were treated with either standardly-produced hyperimmune globulin (HIG) from RhCMV-seropositive macaques or dose-optimized, potently RhCMV-neutralizing HIG prior to intravenous challenge with an RhCMV swarm. HIG passive infusion provided complete protection against fetal loss in both groups, and the potently-neutralizing HIG additionally inhibited placental transmission of RhCMV. Our findings suggest that antibody alone at the time of primary infection can prevent congenital CMV and therefore could be a primary target of vaccines to eliminate this neonatal infection.