Filopodia are commonly observed cellular protrusions in vitro and in vivo. Defective filopodia formation is linked to several pathologies including cancer, wherein actively protruding filopodia, at the invasive front, and filopodia-mediated probing of the microenvironment accompanies cancer cell dissemination. Despite wide biological significance, delineating the function of these finger-like protrusions in more complex systems remains technically challenging, particularly hindered by lack of compatible methods to quantify filopodia properties. Here, we present FiloQuant, a freely available ImageJ plugin, to detect filopodia and filopodia-like protrusions in both fixed and live-cell microscopy data. We demonstrate that FiloQuant can extract quantifiable information including protrusion dynamics, density and length from multiple cell types and in a range of microenvironments, such as during collective or single cancer cell migration in 2D and 3D, in fixed neuronal cultures, in activated natural killer cells and in sprouting endothelial cells in vivo. In cellular models of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) we reveal a link between filopodia formation at the cell-matrix interface, during collective invasion and in 3D tumour spheroids, with the previously reported local invasive potential of these breast cancer models in vivo. Finally, using intravital microscopy, we observed that tumour spheroids display prominent filopodia in vivo, supporting a potential role for these protrusions during tumorigenesis.