Vibrio natriegens has recently emerged as an alternative to Escherichia coli for molecular biology and biotechnology, but low-efficiency genetic tools hamper its development. Here, we uncover how to induce natural competence in V. natriegens and describe methods for multiplex genome editing by natural transformation (MuGENT). MuGENT promotes integration of large genome edits at high-efficiency on unprecedented timescales. Also, this method allows for generating highly complex mutant populations, which can be exploited for metabolic engineering efforts. As a proof-of-concept, we attempted to enhance production of the value added chemical poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in V. natriegens by targeting the expression of nine genes involved in PHB biosynthesis via MuGENT. Within 1 week, we isolated edited strains that produced ~100 times more PHB than the parent isolate and ~3.3 times more than a rationally designed strain. Thus, the methods described here should extend the utility of this species for diverse academic and industrial applications.