Comprehensive and programmable protein mutagenesis is critical for understanding structure-function relationships and improving protein function. However, current techniques enabling comprehensive protein mutagenesis are based on PCR and require in vitro reactions involving specialized protocols and reagents. This has complicated efforts to rapidly and reliably produce desired comprehensive protein libraries. Here we demonstrate that plasmid recombineering is a simple and robust in vivo method for the generation of protein mutants for both comprehensive library generation as well as programmable targeting of sequence space. Using the fluorescent protein iLOV as a model target, we build a complete mutagenesis library and find it to be specific and unbiased, detecting 99.8% of our intended mutations. We then develop a thermostability screen and utilize our comprehensive mutation data to rapidly construct a targeted and multiplexed library that identifies significantly improved variants, thus demonstrating rapid protein engineering in a simple one-pot protocol.