A key goal of functional genomics is to elucidate how genes and proteins act together in space and time, wired as pathways, to control specific aspects of cell biological function. Here, we develop a method to quantitatively determine proteins' localization interdependencies at high throughput. We show that this method can be used to systematically obtain weighted, signed and directional pathway relationships, and hence to reconstruct a detailed pathway wiring. As proof-of-principle, we focus on 42 factors that control cell polarity in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and use high-throughput confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis to reconstruct their Localization Interdependency Network (LIN). Through this approach we identify 554 pairwise interactions across the factors, including 98% putative new directed links. Validation of an unexpected interaction between two polarity factor subgroups - the polarity landmark proteins and the cell integrity pathway components - by orthogonal phenotyping demonstrates the power of the LIN approach in detecting subtle, systems-level causal connections.