The nuclear pore complex (NPC), a gateway for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, is composed of about 30 different proteins called nucleoporins. It remains unknown whether the NPCs within a species are homogeneous or vary depending on the cell type, or physiological condition. Here, we present evidence for compositionally distinct NPCs that form within a single cell in a binucleated ciliate. In Tetrahymena thermophila, each cell contains both a transcriptionally-active macronucleus (MAC) and a germline micronucleus (MIC). By combining in silico analysis, mass spectrometry analysis for immuno-isolated proteins, and subcellular localization analysis of GFP fused proteins, we identified numerous novel components of MAC and MIC NPCs. Core members of the Nup107-160 scaffold complex were enriched in MIC NPCs. Strikingly, two paralogs of Nup214 and of Nup153 localized exclusively to either MAC or MIC NPCs. Furthermore, the transmembrane components Pom121 and Pom82 localize exclusively to MAC and MIC NPCs, respectively. Our results argue that functional nuclear dimorphism in ciliates is likely to depend on compositional and structural specificity of NPCs.