Body size is a tightly regulated phenotype in metazoans that is dependent on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While signaling pathways such as insulin, Hippo, and myostatin are known to control organ and body size, the downstream effectors that mediate their effects are still poorly understood. In the nematode C. elegans, a Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-related signaling pathway is the major regulator of growth and body size. DBL-1, the BMP-related ligand, is secreted by neurons and body wall muscle, and acts as a dose-dependent regulator of body size. We investigated the transcriptional network through which the DBL-1/BMP pathway regulates body size and identified cuticle collagen genes as major effectors of growth control. Here we demonstrate that cuticle collagen genes can act as positive regulators (col-41), dose-sensitive regulators (rol-6), and negative regulators (col-141, col-142) of body size. Moreover, we show requirement of DBL-1/BMP signaling for stage-specific expression of cuticle collagen genes. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to show that the Smad signal transducers directly associate with conserved Smad binding elements in regulatory regions of col-141 and col-142, but not of col-41. Hence, cuticle collagen genes are directly and indirectly regulated via the DBL-1/BMP pathway. These results provide the first direct regulatory link between this conserved signaling pathway and the collagen genes that act as its downstream effectors in body size regulation. Since collagen mutations and misregulation are implicated in numerous human genetic disorders and injury sequelae, understanding how collagen gene expression is regulated has broad implications.