Armillaria ostoyae is a fungal species causing root diseases in numerous coniferous forests of the northern hemisphere. The importance of sexual spores for the establishment of new disease centers remains unclear, particularly in the large maritime pine plantations of south-western France. An analysis of the genetic diversity of a local fungal population distributed over 500 ha in this French forest showed genetic recombination between genotypes to be frequent, consistent with regular sexual reproduction within the population. The estimated spatial genetic structure displayed a significant pattern of isolation by distance, consistent with the dispersal of sexual spores mostly at the spatial scale studied. Using these genetic data, we inferred an effective density of reproductive individuals of 0.1 to 0.3 individuals/ha, and a second moment of parent-progeny dispersal distance of 130 to 800 m, compatible with the main models of fungal spore dispersal. These results contrast with those obtained for studies of A. ostoyae over larger spatial scales, suggesting that inferences about mean spore dispersal may be best performed at fine spatial scales (i.e. a few kilometers) for most fungal species.