Copy number variations (CNVs) are large genetic variations detected among the individuals of every multicellular organism examined so far. These variations are believed to play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of species. In plants, little is known about the characteristics of CNVs, particularly regarding the rates at which they are generated and the mechanics of their transmission from a generation to the next. Here, we used SNP-array raw intensity data for 55 two-generations families (3663 individuals) to scan the gene space of the conifer tree Picea glauca (Moench) Voss for CNVs. We were particularly interested in the abundance, inheritance, spontaneous mutation rate spectrum and the evolutionary consequences they may have on the standing genetic variation of white spruce. Our findings show that CNVs affect a small proportion of the gene space and are predominantly copy number losses. CNVs were either inherited or generated through de novo events. De novo CNVs present high rates of spontaneous mutations that vary for different genes and alleles and are correlated with gene expression levels. Most of the inherited CNVs (70%) are transmitted from the parents in violation of Mendelian expectations. These transmission distortions can cause considerable frequency changes between generations and be dependent on whether the heterozygote parents contribute as male or female. Transmission distortions were also influenced by the partner genotype and the parents’ genetic background. This study provides new insights into the effects of different evolutionary forces on copy number variations based on the analysis of a perennial plant.