The spatial organization of the genome and its dynamics contribute to gene expression and cellular function in normal development as well as in disease. Although we are increasingly well equipped to determine a genome's sequence and linear chromatin composition, studying the three-dimensional organization of the genome with high spatial and temporal resolution remains challenging. The 4D Nucleome Network aims to develop and apply approaches to map the structure and dynamics of the human and mouse genomes in space and time with the long term goal of gaining deeper mechanistic understanding of how the nucleus is organized. The project will develop and benchmark experimental and computational approaches for measuring genome conformation and nuclear organization, and investigate how these contribute to gene regulation and other genome functions. Further efforts will be directed at applying validated experimental approaches combined with biophysical modeling to generate integrated maps and quantitative models of spatial genome organization in different biological states, both in cell populations and in single cells.