White tail disease in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii causes significant economic losses in shrimp farms and hatcheries and poses a threat to food-security in many developing countries. Outbreaks of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), the causative agent of white tail disease (WTD) are associated with up to 100% mortality rates. Recombinant expression of the capsid protein of MrNV in insect cells leads to the production of VLPs closely resembling the native virus. We have investigated the structure of MrNV VLPs by cryogenic electron microscopy, determining a structure of the viral capsid at 7 angstroms resolution. Our data show that MrNV VLPs package nucleic acids in a manner reminiscent of other known nodavirus structures. The structure of the capsid however shows striking differences from insect and fish infecting nodaviruses, which have been shown to assemble trimer-clustered T=3 icosahedral virus particles. MrNV particles have pronounced dimeric blade-shaped spikes extending up to 6 nm from the outer surface of the capsid shell. Our structural analysis supports the assertion that MrNV along with the related virus of marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) may represent a new genus of the Nodaviridae.