Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is a commensal bacterium that causes opportunistic infections. Evidence is mounting that Kp strains carrying acquired siderophores (yersiniabactin, salmochelin and aerobactin) and/or the genotoxin colibactin are highly pathogenic and can cause invasive disease. Here we explored the diversity of the Kp integrative conjugative element (ICEKp), which mobilises the yersiniabactin locus ybt, by comparing 2499 diverse Kp genomes. We identified 17 distinct ybt lineages and 14 ICEKp structural variants (some of which carry colibactin (clb) or salmochelin synthesis loci). Hundreds of ICEKp transmission events were detected affecting hundreds of Kp lineages, including nearly >20 transfers into the globally-disseminated, carbapenem-resistant clonal group CG258. Additionally, we identify a plasmid-encoded lineage of ybt, representing a new mechanism for ybt dispersal in Kp populations. We introduce a novel sequence-based typing approach for identifying ybt and clb variants, to aid the identification of emerging pathogenic lineages and the convergence of antibiotic resistance and hypervirulence.