Alzheimer's disease (AD) not only involves loss of memory functions but also prominent deterioration of sleep physiology, already evident in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5-1 Hz) and thalamo-cortical spindle activity (12-15 Hz) during sleep, and their temporal coordination, are considered critical for memory formation. We investigated the potential of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS), applied during a daytime nap in a sleep state-dependent manner, to modulate these activity patterns and sleep-related memory consolidation in 16 patients with MCI. Stimulation significantly increased overall SO and spindle power, amplified spindle power during SO up-phases, and led to stronger synchronization between SO and spindle power fluctuations in electroencephalographic recordings. Moreover, visual declarative memory was improved by so-tDCS compared to sham stimulation, associated with stronger synchronization. These findings indicate a well-tolerated therapeutic approach for disordered sleep physiology and deficits in memory consolidation in MCI patients.