Early specification of progenitors of the ventral spinal cord involves the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog which induces distinct progenitor identities in a dose-dependent manner. Following these initial patterning events, progenitor identities have to be maintained in order to generate appropriate numbers of progeny. Here we provide evidence that communication via Eph:ephrin signaling is required to maintain progenitor identities in the ventral spinal cord. We show that ephrinB2 and ephrinB3 are expressed in restricted progenitor domains in the ventral spinal cord while several Eph receptors are more broadly expressed. Further, we provide evidence that expression of Efnb3 and EphA4 is controlled by Shh. Genetic loss-of-function analyses indicate that expression of ephrinB2 and ephrinB3 is required to control progenitor identities and in vitro experiments reveal that activation of Eph forward signaling in spinal progenitors up-regulates the expression of the identity transcription factor Nkx2.2. Altogether our results indicate that cell-to-cell communication is necessary to control progenitor identity in the ventral spinal cord.