The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is a critical regulator of plant growth and defense. To significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and dynamics of the JA gene regulatory network, we performed high-resolution RNA-Seq time series analyses of methyl JA-treated Arabidopsis thaliana. Computational analysis unraveled in detail the chronology of events that occur during the early and later phases of the JA response. Several transcription factors, including ERF16 and bHLH27, were uncovered as early components of the JA gene regulatory network with a role in pathogen and insect resistance. Moreover, analysis of subnetworks surrounding the JA-induced transcription factors ORA47, RAP2.6L, and ANAC055 provided novel insights into their regulatory role of defined JA network modules. Collectively, our work illuminates the complexity of the JA gene regulatory network, pinpoints to novel regulators, and provides a valuable resource for future studies on the function of JA signaling components in plant defense and development.