The small G-protein Ras is a conserved regulator of cell and tissue growth. These effects of Ras are mediated largely through activation of a canonical RAF-MEK-ERK kinase cascade. An important challenge is to identify how this Ras/ERK pathway alters cellular metabolism to drive growth. Here we report on stimulation of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-mediated tRNA synthesis as a growth effector of Ras/ERK signalling in Drosophila. We find that activation of Ras/ERK signalling promotes tRNA synthesis both in vivo and in cultured Drosophila S2 cells. We also show that Pol III function is required for Ras/ERK signalling to drive proliferation in both epithelial and stem cells in Drosophila tissues. We find that the transcription factor Myc is required but not sufficient for Ras-mediated stimulation of tRNA synthesis. Instead we show that the main way that Ras promotes Pol III function and tRNA synthesis is by inhibiting the nuclear localization and function of the Pol III repressor Maf1. We propose that inhibition of Maf1 and stimulation of tRNA synthesis is one way by which Ras signalling enhances protein synthesis to promote cell and tissue growth.