Chronic airway infections by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. While this bacterium has been extensively studied for its virulence mechanisms, biofilm growth and immune evasion within the CF airways, comparatively little is known about the nutrient sources that sustain its growth in vivo. Respiratory mucins represent a potentially abundant bioavailable nutrient source, though we have recently shown that canonical pathogens inefficiently use these host glycoproteins as a growth substrate. Yet, given that P. aeruginosa, particularly in its biofilm mode of growth is thought to grow slowly in vivo, the inefficient use of mucin glycoproteins may have relevance to its persistence within the CF airways. To this end, here we use whole genome fitness analysis combining transposon mutagenesis with high throughput sequencing (TnSeq) to identify genetic determinants required for P. aeruginosa growth using intact purified mucins as a sole carbon source. Our analysis reveals a biphasic growth phenotype, during which the glyoxylate pathway and amino acid biosynthetic machinery are required for mucin utilization. Secondary analyses confirmed the simultaneous liberation and consumption of acetate during mucin degradation and revealed a central role for the extracellular proteases LasB and AprA. Together, these studies identified the P. aeruginosa genes required for mucin-based nutrient acquisition and reveal a host-pathogen dynamic that may contribute to its persistence within the CF airways.