Prior research on cooperative breeders has considered correlations between group reproductive output (GRO) and the number of individuals in each age-sex class, but without controlling for uneven sampling efforts, the underlying effects of group size, and pseudoreplication at the group and species levels. Among callitrichids, age-sex classes do not provide meaningful categories, as individuals within an age-sex class can demonstrate varying reproductive development due to reproductive dominance of a few individuals per group. This study re-assesses the drivers of GRO in callitrichids by a) conducting a meta-analysis of published studies of callitrichid group composition; b) determining a novel method to assign developmental class based on reproductive morphology; and c) utilizing a multistep modeling approach to assess whether any sex-based developmental class predicts both the presence and the numbers of surviving offspring among free-ranging saddleback (Leontocebus weddelli) and emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator) in Peru. The meta-analysis utilizing a historical dataset revealed that adult females and group size, but not the number of adult males is significantly correlated with GRO. Statistical models of the new dataset revealed that only mature males predicted if groups had any infants at all, but that the number of surviving infants was predicted by mature females and group size. Thus mature males appear to be necessary for groups to raise any infants, but mature females and a larger group size increase group reproductive output overall.