Giardia lamblia is the most frequently identified protozoan cause of intestinal infection. Over one billion people are estimated to have acute or chronic giardiasis, with infection rates approaching 90% in endemic areas. Despite its significance in global health, the mechanisms of pathogenesis associated with giardiasis remains unclear as the parasite neither produces a known toxin nor induces a robust inflammatory response. Giardia colonization and proliferation in the small intestine of the host, however, may disrupt of the ecological homeostasis of gastrointestinal commensal microbes and contribute to diarrheal disease associated with giardiasis. To evaluate the impact of Giardia infection on the host microbiota, we use culture-independent methods to quantify shifts in the diversity of commensal microbes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract in mice infected with Giardia. We discovered that Giardia colonization of the small intestine causes a systemic dysbiosis of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial taxa. Specifically, giardiasis is typified by both expansions in aerobic Proteobacteria and decreases in anaerobic Firmicute and Melainabacteria in the murine foregut and hindgut. Based on these shifts, we created a quantitative index of murine Giardia-induced microbial dysbiosis. This index increased at all gut regions during the duration of infection, including both the proximal small intestine and the colon. Thus giardiasis could be an ecological disease, and the observed dysbiosis may be mediated directly via the unique anaerobic fermentative metabolism of Giardia or indirectly via parasite induction of gut inflammation. This systemic alteration of murine gut commensal diversity may be the cause or the consequence of inflammatory and metabolic changes throughout the gut. Shifts in the commensal microbiota may explain observed variation in giardiasis between hosts with respect to host pathology, degree of parasite colonization, infection initiation, and eventual clearance.