Recurring epidemics of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) bleeding canker disease are caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), whose emergence coincided with domestication of its host. The most recent pandemic has had a deleterious effect on kiwifruit production worldwide. In order to strengthen understanding of population structure, phylogeography and evolutionary dynamics of Psa, we sampled 746 Pseudomonas isolates from cultivated and wild kiwifruit across six provinces in China, of which 87 were Psa. Of 234 Pseudomonas isolated from wild Actinidia spp. none were identified as Psa. Genome sequencing of fifty isolates and the inclusion of an additional thirty from previous studies show that China is the origin of the recently emerged pandemic lineage. However China harbours only a fraction of global Psa diversity, with greatest diversity found in Korea and Japan. Distinct transmission events were responsible for introduction of the pandemic lineage of Psa into New Zealand, Chile and Europe. Two independent transmission events occurred between China and Korea, and two Japanese isolates from 2014 cluster with New Zealand Psa. Despite high similarity at the level of the core genome and negligible impact of within-lineage recombination, there has been substantial gene gain and loss even within the single clade from which the global pandemic arose.