Infection by Campylobacter is recognised as the most common cause of foodborne bacterial illness worldwide. Faecal contamination of meat, especially chicken, during processing represents a key route of transmission to humans. There is currently no licenced vaccine and no Campylobacter-resistant chickens. In addition, preventative measures aimed at reducing environmental contamination and exposure of chickens to Campylobacter jejuni (biosecurity) have been ineffective. There is much interest in the factors/mechanisms that drive C. jejuni colonisation and infection of animals, and survival in the environment. It is anticipated that understanding these mechanisms will guide the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of C. jejuni infection. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of C. jejuni fitness during growth and survival within and outside hosts. A comparative analysis of transposon (Tn) gene inactivation libraries in three C. jejuni strains by Tn-seq demonstrated that a large proportion, 331 genes, of the C. jejuni genome is dedicated to (in vitro) growth. An extensive Tn library in C. jejuni M1cam (~10,000 mutants) was screened for the colonisation of commercial broiler chickens, survival in houseflies and under nutrient-rich and -poor conditions at low temperature, and infection of human gut epithelial cells. We report C. jejuni factors essential throughout its life cycle and we have identified genes that fulfil important roles across multiple conditions, including maf3, fliW, fliD, pflB and capM, as well as novel genes uniquely implicated in survival outside hosts. Taking a comprehensive screening approach has confirmed previous studies, that the flagella are central to the ability of C. jejuni to interact with its hosts. Future efforts should focus on how to exploit this knowledge to effectively control infections caused by C. jejuni.