The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is a key biological system required for reproduction and associated sexual behaviors to occur. Each of these tissues, the hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland, and the gonads (testes and ovaries), has specialized and sometimes sex-specific functions that promote, amongst other things, reproductive processes. To fully characterize the transcript community of each aspect of the HPG axis, as well as to uncover potentially important sex-specific differences, we characterized patterns of gene expression in sexually mature male and female rock dove (Columba livia) hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. We describe patterns of gene expression amongst tissues as well as patterns of sex-biased gene expression which may underlie some of the fundamental differences between male and female reproductive behavior. We report greater sex-biased differential expression in the pituitary (n=233 genes) as compared to the hypothalamus (n=1 gene), with multiple genes overexpressed in the male pituitary gland being related to locomotion, and multiple genes over-expressed in the female pituitary gland being related to reproduction, growth and development. These genes may be associated with facilitating the different roles the HPG system plays in sex-specific reproductive behavior, including life-history strategies characterized by short-term payoffs in males (i.e. locomotion) and longer-term payoffs in females (i.e. development and reproduction). In addition, we report novel patterns of sex-biased expression in genes involved in reproduction-associated processes. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Progesterone, and Androgen receptor were upregulated in the female pituitary as compared to the male pituitary. We also found greater expression of Prolactin in the female pituitary as compared to the male pituitary, but it was more highly expressed in the male hypothalamus as compared to the female hypothalamus. The Prolactin receptor was also more highly expressed in the male hypothalamus and pituitary gland as compared to corresponding female tissues. Finally, we discovered greater expression of Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1A in the male pituitary as compared to the female pituitary. Using a more global analysis, we discovered other interesting sex-biased patterns in genes not originally targeted for investigation. These genes include like Betacellulin (BTC), which was upregulated in the female pituitary and compared to males, and Ecto-NOX Disulfide-Thiol Exchanger 1 (ENOX1), which was upregulated in the male pituitary as compared to females. These genes may play important, though currently unknown, roles in reproductive physiology and behavior. In conclusion, we reveal patterns of tissue specific and sexually dimorphic gene expression in the HPG axis, highlighting the need for sex parity in transcriptomic studies and providing new lines of investigation of the mechanisms of reproductive function.