As the most widely used illicit drug, the basis of the fastest growing major industry in the US, and as a source of numerous under-studied psychoactive compounds, understanding the psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have state-legalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects. Our results demonstrate that the federally produced Cannabis has significantly less variety and lower concentrations of cannabinoids. Current research, which has focused on material that is far less diverse and less potent than that used by the public, limits our understanding of the plants chemical, biological, psychological, medical, and pharmacological properties. Investigation is urgently needed on the diverse forms of Cannabis used by the public in state-legal markets.