The genomes of newly formed natural or artificial polyploids may experience rapid gene loss and genome restructuring. In this study, we obtained tetraploid hybrids (4n=148, 4nJB) and triploid hybrids (3n=124, 3nJB) derived from the hybridization of two different subfamily species Carassius cuvieri (♀, 2n = 100, JCC) and Megalobrama amblycephala (♂, 2n = 48, BSB). Some significant morphological and physiological differences were detected in the polyploidy hybrids compared with their parents. To reveal the molecular traits of the polyploids, we compared the liver transcriptomes of 4nJB, 3nJB and their parents. The results indicated high proportion chimeric genes (31 > %) and mutated orthologous genes (17 > %) both in 4nJB and 3nJB. We classified 10 gene patterns within three categories in 4nJB and 3nJB orthologous gene, and characterized 30 randomly chosen genes using genomic DNA to confirm the chimera or mutant. Moreover, we mapped chimeric genes involved pathways and discussed that the phenotypic novelty of the hybrids may relate to some chimeric genes. For example, we found there is an intragenic insertion in the K+ channel kcnk5b, which may be related to the novel presence of the barbels in 4nJB. Our results indicated that the genomes of newly formed polyploids experienced rapid restructuring post-polyploidization, which may results in the phenotypic and phenotypic changes among the polyploidy hybrid offspring. The formation of the 4nJB and 3nJB provided new insights into the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of hybrid fish resulting from distant hybridization between subfamilies.