Viral infection is usually studied at the level of cell populations, averaging over hundreds of thousands of individual cells. Moreover, measurements are typically done by analyzing a few time points along the infection process. While informative, such measurements are limited in addressing how cell variability affects infection outcome. Here we employ dynamic proteomics to study virus-host interactions, using the human pathogen Herpes Simplex virus 1 as a model. We tracked >50,000 individual cells as they respond to HSV1 infection, allowing us to model infection kinetics and link infection outcome (productive or not) with the cell state at the time of initial infection. We find that single cells differ in their preexisting susceptibility to HSV1, and that this is partially mediated by their cell-cycle position. We also identify specific changes in protein levels and localization in infected cells, attesting to the power of the dynamic proteomics approach for studying virus-host interactions.