Characteristics of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster have been well-described, but the genetic basis for male-female mating success is largely unknown. Here we show that the white (w) gene, a classical eye color gene, is associated with mating success. 81.3 % of wild-type flies copulated within 60 minutes in the circular arenas, whereas few white-eyed mutants mated successfully. The w+ allele exchanged to the X chromosome or duplicated to the Y chromosome in the white-eyed genetic background rescued the defect of mating success. Addition of a mini-white (mw+) gene to the white-eyed mutant background rectified the defect of mating success and rescued courting in a dosage-dependent manner. Lastly, male-female sexual experience mimicked the effects of w+/mw+ in improving successful male-female mating. These data suggest a strong association between the w gene and mating success in Drosophila melanogaster.