Due to its genetic proximity with Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae) is increasingly used as a perennial model species in studies of molecular evolution and adaptation. We studied the demography of A. alpina in six natural sites widely differing in their degree of disturbance, slope and vegetation, and encompassing the full altitudinal range of the species. We estimated three vital rates (growth, reproductive effort and survival) for individually-marked plants, studied for six years (2008-2014). We characterized the thermic conditions of each site with different thermal variables obtained using in situ continuous-time data loggers. Although A. alpina is described as a perennial species, the average life expectancy was only 1.82 years and most plants died before setting seeds. Plant size was a strong predictor of all three vital rates. Mean daily temperature showed a positive effect on growth and a negative effect on survival. Furthermore, reproductive effort covaried negatively with survival, suggesting a mechanism of demographic compensation acting on an elevational gradient. Synthesis. These results are informative of the selective pressures experienced by A. alpina in natural conditions and will help design experimental and molecular studies of local adaptation in this species.