Understanding the wiring diagram of the human cerebral cortex is a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. Several topological properties of this intricate network have been uncovered, yet elemental aspects of its organization remain elusive. Here we explore wiring principles of the human connectome by examining which structural traits of cortical regions, particularly their characteristic cytoarchitecture and thickness, relate to the existence and strength of inter-regional connections. To this end, we use the comprehensive data from the classic work of von Economo and Koskinas in conjuction with diffusion data from the Human Connectome Project. Our results reveal a prominent role of the cytoarchitectonic similarity of upper cortical layers for predicting the existence of connections. In contrast, cortical thickness similarity was not systematically related to the existence of connections. Our findings are in line with recent findings in non-human mammalian cerebral cortices, suggesting that the cytoarchitectonic similarity of cortical regions underlies an overarching wiring principle of the mammalian cerebral cortex. The present results invite hypotheses about potentially evolutionary conserved neurobiological mechanisms that give rise to the observed relation of cytoarchitecture and connectivity in the human cerebral cortex.