Abstract Introduction Establishment of peripheral blood CD 3 and CD 4 lymphocyte counts is useful for immunological monitoring and staging of HIV. This forms the basis of management. This study evaluates total T lymphocyte and CD4 lymphocyte counts among women on DMPA and compares this to matched controls that were not on hormonal contraception. Materials and Methods This case control study was conducted in the western Kenya city of Kisumu. Participants were WHO stage I and II ART naive HIV-positive women. The cases were enrolled in the institutional family planning clinic and must have had an intramuscular injection of DMPA within a three month period. We used a standard provider initiated questionnaire to collect social and demographic information. Peripheral blood CD 3 and CD 4 lymphocyte counts were determined using BDFacs count. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS Version 17. Results A total of 138 participants were recruited into the study, 66 controls and 54 cases. The median ages were 26 and 28 respectively. The median CD 3 lymphocyte counts among controls and cases were 1628 and (p=0.004) while median CD4 lymphocyte counts are 649 (p=0.02). Conclusion Use of the progestin DMPA is associated with an increase in median in CD3 and CD 4 l lymphocyte counts. Although the clinical benefits of this increase is unclear, DMPA is safe for use among women living with HIV. Keywords: DMPA, CD 4, CD 3, T lymphocytes.