Neuroimaging has transformed our ability to probe the neurobiological basis of behaviour. As neuroimaging technologies become more widely available, they are increasingly being applied by the wider neuroscience community. However, concerns have recently been raised that the conclusions drawn from many human neuroimaging studies are either spurious or not generalizable. Problems such as low statistical power, analytical flexibility, and lack of direct replication apply to many fields, but perhaps particularly to neuroimaging. In this Opinion article, we discuss these problems, outline current and suggested best practices to improve the quality and reproducibility of neuroimaging findings, and describe how we think the field should evolve if it is to produce the most meaningful answers to current and future research questions.