Plants obtain soil-resident elements that support growth and metabolism via water-mediated flow facilitated by transpiration and active transport processes. The availability of elements in the environment interact with the genetic capacity of organisms to modulate element uptake through plastic adaptive responses, such as homeostasis. These interactions should cause the elemental contents of plants to vary such that the effects of genetic polymorphisms influencing elemental accumulation will be dramatically dependent on the environment in which the plant is grown. To investigate genotype by environment interactions underlying elemental accumulation, we analyzed levels of elements in maize kernels of the Intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) recombinant inbred population grown in 10 different environments spanning a total of six locations and five different years. We identified quantitative trait loci controlling elemental accumulation by considering individual elemental accumulation measurements as traits and by mapping the loci responsible for variation in co-regulated multi-elemental traits identified using principle components analysis. These approaches detected partially overlapping sets of loci, many of which were found only in a single growout. We applied our multi-element approach across all of the growouts and found that the growth environment has a profound effect on the elemental profile and that some multi-element phenotypes correlate with specific environmental variables. We identified QTL by environment interactions (QEIs) through three methods: linear modeling with environmental covariates, QTL analysis on trait differences between growouts, and QTL analysis on factors obtained from a principle component derived model of ionome variation across environments. Overall, we were able to map 79 elemental QTL, 101 principal component QTL, and several instances of QEI, indicating that elemental profiles are highly heritable, interrelated, and responsive to the environment.