Examples of phenotypic convergence in plumage coloration have been reported in a wide diversity of avian taxonomic groups, yet the underlying evolutionary mechanisms driving this phenomenon have received little scientific inquiry. Herein, we document a striking new case of plumage convergence in the Helmeted Woodpecker (Dryocopus galeatus) and explore the possibility of visual mimicry among Atlantic Forest woodpeckers. Our multi-locus phylogenetic analyses unequivocally place D. galeatus within Celeus, indicating the former has subsequently converged in appearance upon the distantly related and syntopic Dryocopus lineatus, to which it bears a remarkable resemblance in plumage coloration and pattern. Although details of the Helmeted Woodpecker’s ecology and natural history are only now beginning to emerge, its smaller size and submissive behavior are consistent with predictions derived from evolutionary game theory models and the interspecific social dominance mimicry hypothesis (ISDM). Moreover, estimates of avian visual acuity suggest that size-related mimetic deception is plausible at distances ecologically relevant to Celeus and Dryocopus foraging behavior. In light of our results, we recommend taxonomic transfer of D. galeatus to Celeus and emphasize the need for detailed behavioral studies that examine the social costs and benefits of plumage convergence to explicitly test for ISDM and other forms of mimicry in these Atlantic Forest woodpecker communities. Future field studies examining potential cases of competitive mimicry should also take into account the mimic’s acoustic behavior, particularly in the presence of putative model species and other heterospecific competitors, as any discontinuity between morphological and behavioral mimicry would likely preclude the possibility of deception.